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  1. How does Zika virus cause microcephaly?
  2. Zika virus - Wikipedia
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  4. Zika Virus: History, Emergence, Biology, and Prospects for Control

virus infection. • Relationship to Zika virus infection is not known. . microcephaly Zika virus spreads to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes During sex with a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners. KEY MESSAGES – ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE. Purpose: This document is for internal and external use. The document contains cleared key.

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Zika Virus Pdf

After the first isolation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in from a rhesus monkey (1), complications after becoming ill with the virus. Controlling the breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes reduces the likelihood of transmission of Zika, chikungunya. fever, rash and joint pain) many of the countries affected by Zika virus are . /csr/ research-and-development/

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Antiviral Res See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Zika virus ZIKV , a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes Stegomyia spp. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. History of Zika virus discovery and early characterizations of distribution, transmission cycles and disease Zika virus ZIKV was discovered in the Zika Forest of Uganda during research supported by the Rockefeller Foundation to study the enzootic or sylvatic cycle of yellow fever virus and to identify additional arboviruses. Sentinel Rhesus monkeys were placed into the canopy in April, and one developed fever and viremia, leading to ZIKV isolation by inoculation of its blood intracranially into infant mice. The first characterization of human disease following ZIKV infection 2 cases based on seroconversion and one case based on virus isolation from the serum of a febrile girl occurred in Nigeria during Macnamara, These cases were accompanied by fever, headache, diffuse joint pain, and in one case, slight jaundice. Two years later, experimental infection of a yellow fever-vaccinated human volunteer with a 6th mouse brain-passaged ZIKV strain from the Nigerian human isolates resulted in a relatively mild febrile illness slight headache, malaise, fever associated with natural infection. Attempts to demonstrate transmission by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti mosquitoes fed on the infected volunteer did not succeed Bearcroft, The first direct detection of ZIKV in Asia as well as the first evidence of transmission by an urban vector occurred when the virus was isolated from A. Eleven years later, the first human infections in Asia were diagnosed from central Java in Indonesia by seroconversion in seven patients presented with fever, malaise, stomach ache, anorexia and dizziness Olson et al. In addition to direct evidence of the range of ZIKV circulation from these isolations and patient diagnoses, human serosurveys have suggested a broad range in both Africa and Asia Fig. However, it must be noted that several of these studies used relatively nonspecific methods such as hemagglutination inhibition that show extensive cross reactions among flaviviruses, and some did not test for seropositivity for other flaviviruses now known to circulate in these regions.

The 3. Structure and function of the Zika virus full-length NS5 protein. Nat Commun. Complete genome sequences of five Zika virus isolates.

How does Zika virus cause microcephaly?

Genome Announc. Complete genome sequence of Zika virus isolated in Mexico, Zika virus classification tables. March [internet publication]. A single mutation in the prM protein of Zika virus contributes to fetal microcephaly. It is most commonly transmitted by the A aegypti species which lives in tropical regions, but can also be carried by A albopictus which lives in temperate regions.

Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat. N Engl J Med.

Zika virus - Wikipedia

June [internet publication]. Culex pipiens and Aedes triseriatus mosquito susceptibility to Zika virus.

Culex species mosquitoes and Zika virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus. Euro Surveill. Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection.

Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection. Arq Bras Oftalmol.

Possible association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly - Brazil, Health advisory: sexual transmission of Zika virus. February [internet publication]. Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November to February Survey of blood collection centers and implementation of guidance for prevention of transfusion-transmitted Zika virus infection - Puerto Rico, The mosquito that most commonly transmits Zika Aedes aegypti , as well as dengue and chikungunya, is very rare in Delaware.

But we do have another Aedes species of concern for possible transmission of Zika, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Local Zika transmission via a mosquito is possible during mosquito season but it depends on a variety of factors. Regardless of the type of illness, the message is the same for every mosquito season and during travel: There are too many serious mosquito-borne illnesses to risk a bite.

Zika, and many other mosquito-borne illnesses are considered "mandatory reports", meaning that health care providers are required to report individuals with known or suspected Zika virus infection to the Division of Public Health DPH.

This includes anyone with known or suspected Zika, but reporting is especially important in the cases of pregnant women, as well as newborns and infants born to women with known or suspected Zika infection. Because of the similar geographic distribution and clinical presentation of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya virus infection, patients with symptoms consistent with Zika virus should also be evaluated for dengue and chikungunya virus infection, in accordance with existing guidelines.

To report a case of Zika virus or for further information, call the DPH Office of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at or fill out one of the forms below and fax or email to the Office of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at or reportdisease delaware.

Providers are also encouraged to contact a DPH infectious disease epidemiologist prior to collecting specimens as all testing must be pre-authorized.

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At the time of this call, the epidemiologist will gather necessary travel and clinical history and assist with specimen coordination if testing is authorized. Please note: A free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded directly from Adobe. If you are using an assistive technology unable to read Adobe PDF, please either view the corresponding text only version if available or visit Adobe's Accessibility Tools page.

Skip to Content Skip to Navigation. Search This Site. What is Zika? Areas with Active Zika Virus Transmission Those who recently traveled or plan to travel to areas where Zika transmission is ongoing could be at risk. Travel and Transmission Advisories If you are pregnant, postpone travel to the locations where Zika virus transmission is ongoing.

If your sexual partner has traveled to or lives in an area with active Zika virus transmission, barrier methods condoms, dental dams should be used for the duration of the pregnancy. Although no cases of woman-to-woman Zika transmission have been reported to date, these recommendations regarding the use of protection now extend to the female partners of pregnant women. Discuss your partner's potential exposures and history of Zika-like illness with your doctor.

If you are trying to become pregnant and have had possible exposure to Zika virus through travel or sexual contact, wait at least eight weeks before trying to conceive, regardless of whether or not you had symptoms.

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Men who have had possible exposure to Zika virus through travel or sexual contact are advised to wait at least six months before attempting conception with their partner. Sex includes vaginal, anal, and oral sex, and the sharing of sex toys. If you are pregnant or may become pregnant and must travel to an area with Zika, talk to your doctor first and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites and sexual transmission of Zika during your trip.

Zika Virus: History, Emergence, Biology, and Prospects for Control

If you traveled to an area with active Zika virus transmission up to eight weeks before your pregnancy was confirmed, discuss your travel history with your doctor. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant can find more information by visiting: Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.

Stay in places with air conditioning or that use window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside. All EPA-registered insect repellents are evaluated for effectiveness. Always follow the product label instructions.